Livestock Farming

Livestock farming

Livestock farming is the domestication of animals to bring benefits to the owner. Such benefits are labor, meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool. Many people across the world employ different methods and ways to achieve the most out of their livestock. There are large-scale, small-scale, and hobby farmers, but the type of farming method and the type of livestock you keep will determine how profitable and beneficial it will be for you.

There are many types of animals that can be considered livestock. Some of these animals are cattle, sheep, goats, camels, and pigs. But nowadays, horses have also been kept as part of livestock. Livestock keeping has been a source of livelihood for many Kenyans, especially in the rural areas. With many farmers gradually considering this venture as a business opportunity, it is important to be knowledgeable about the different types of livestock before starting the business.

In this article, we shall discuss the various types of livestock, farming methods, and the benefits/shortcoming of each method. The article is meant to equip the reader with valuable information which will help them make sound decisions when it comes to livestock farming. Continue reading the article for the best insights about livestock production in Kenya.

Table of Contents

1. Cattle Farming

In Kenya, cattle farming is widely practiced in rural areas, with a study showing that 7 out of 10 rural households have at least one cow. It has been further revealed that most of the cattle farmers in Kenya are small scale-farmers, at 85%. That means that most of the production done is for domestic purposes.

Most of the cattle kept in Kenya are either for milk (dairy), meat (beef), or dual-purpose (both milk and meat). The following is a detailed explanation of each category:

A. Dairy Livestock Farming

The main purpose of keeping dairy cows in Kenya is for milk production and breeding to provide for future cows. There are four main dairy breeds kept in Kenya today,  Friesian, Ayrshire, Guernsey, and Jersey, as explained below:


Friesians are known to have come from the Netherlands. It is among the most common dairy cattle in Kenya, marked by its distinctive black and white body markings. This breed of cattle is known for their docile temperament, which makes them easy to handle. That character trait is very important when it comes to feeding and milking.

Friesian Livestock Production

Friesian cows are among the largest cows in terms of body weight and size. A Friesian calf weighs approximately 40 Kg at birth, with adults weighing up to 700 kg and standing at 1.5 meters tall. To support this body weight and mass, these cows feed a lot. The quantity of feed required to sustain these cows is large and makes it hard for the breed to thrive in low-feed environments.

Friesian heifers can be bred at 15 months of age when they weigh about 360 Kg. It is desirable to have Friesian females calve between 24 and 27 months of age for the first time. While some cows may live considerably longer, the normal productive life of a Friesian cow is six years.

The average milk production for a Friesian cow is 7800 liters of milk per lactation. Milk production can go as high as 10,000 liters in a year with butterfat content ranging between 3.5% to 3.7%.

Owing to the huge quantities of feed required to sustain this breed of dairy cattle, it is predominantly found in the highland parts of Kenya, which are mostly the Central Province and some parts of the Rift Valley. These areas are known to be fertile and with very good natural rain seasons, which makes them evergreen, making them good cattle-food producers.

Among the known advantages of Friesians are; frequent calving, fewer replacement requirements, provision of valuable bulls, high milk protein percentage, and are more disease tolerant.

Friesians have shortcomings in that they are less fertile, have less productive lifespans, and have less milk butter fat content. However, for farmers after high milk yields, these shortcomings are negligible compared to the benefits of keeping this breed of dairy cattle.


The Ayrshire breed originated from Scotland. Aryshire is an efficient grazer noted for her vigor and efficiency in milk production. The cow is especially noted for the superior shape and quality of her udder. The composition of her milk makes her suitable for the production of butter and cheese.

Purebred Ayrshires only produce red and white offspring. They are medium in size and weigh over 540 Kg at maturity, mostly ranging from 450 Kg to 600 Kg. They are efficient grazers, adapted to all management systems, and are not subject to excessive foot and leg problems. Ayrshire cattle do better under pasture conditions compared to the other major dairy breeds. When pastures are poor, they need fewer supplements to keep them in good condition. These traits make Ayrshires outstanding commercial dairy cattle. They have an average of 5,000 liters of milk per lactation, which makes them an average milk producer in Kenya.

The notable advantages of Ayrshires are; high-quality milk, efficient feeders, high disease tolerance, economical feeders, healthy, and long-lasting.

Although Ayrshire cows have many good qualities, they have a few shortcomings too. The more notable disadvantages of this breed are their strong personality which makes them hard to handle and their less milk production compared to the Friesians.


In livestock production, Guernsey is also a common breed among dairy cows. It is known to have originated in England on an island called Guernsey. The cow is known for producing high-quality milk while consuming 20% to 30% less feed per kilogram of milk produced compared to larger dairy breeds. They are also known for having a lower calving interval and have a younger average age of first-calf heifers than the larger breeds. Their lack of any known undesirable genetic conditions and their adaptability to warmer climates makes them very attractive to commercial dairy farmers.

According to researchers, a Guernsey dairy cow produces the best milk. The quality of the milk is said to be more than 30% better compared to other breeds. Guernsey is also an excellent grazer. She is a cow that is made for pasture-based milk production. Because of her grazing abilities, gentle disposition, calving ease, and ability to efficiently produce milk with less feed than other breeds, she is the ideal candidate for intensive grazing. Dairy producers can realize their profit potential while reducing management costs.

The notable advantages of the Guernsey cow are; efficiency in feed conversion, adaptability to any climatic condition, easy calving, popularity as a cross-breeder, early maturity, high fertility rates, and increased longevity, which translates to more profits.

With their many advantages, Guernseys have disadvantages as well. These are; expensive due to scarcity, limited selection of bulls, long reproductive tracts that make artificial insemination difficult, and golden milk that may be unattractive to some consumers.


Jersey cows are also common in the Kenyan livestock farming scene. It is a breed that is said to have originated from the island of Jersey in England. Adult jersey cows weigh approximately 450 kg, making them the smallest among all dairy breeds in Kenya. The breed is said to have the best milk quality and butter-fat content in the market.

The breed is adaptable to a wide range of climatic and geographical conditions, except extreme colds. They are excellent grazers and perform well in intensive grazing programs. They are more tolerant to heat than the larger breeds. With its diminutive size, Jersey produces more milk per body weight than any other breed.

Jerseys have varied body colors, ranging from dark grey to dark brown. They also average 6,000 liters of milk per lactation period. Their adaptability to hot climates and impressive milk production make this breed favorable in most of the semi-arid areas in Kenya.

The advantages of Jersey cows are; prolonged life expectancy, non-collapsing udders, less mastitis, ease of calving, and high fertility rates. Among all the dairy breeds mentioned above, it can be said that the Jersey cow is the best suited for the Kenyan climate due to the high temperatures and the low pasture availability in the country.

B. Beef Livestock Farming

It is livestock production with the primary aim of producing meat. In Kenya, there are two types of beef cattle, the indigenous breeds, and the exotic breeds. These breeds differ mostly in the animal husbandry techniques used and the climatic conditions which suit them.

The indigenous breeds are locally bred in Kenya and the larger African continent. These cows have adapted to harsh climatic conditions in the country through selective breeding. Indigenous breeds have low body weight and are mostly kept by subsistence farmers and pastoralist communities. They are a source of livelihood and means of trade for many communities in Kenya. The Zebu, Boran, and the Sahiwal are the main indigenous breeds found in Kenya.

The exotic breeds are kept by large-scale beef producers in the country. They are imported into the country to boost the meat market. These breeds are normally found in big ranches, and since they are not meant for the African climatic conditions, they need special care and attention. The most popular breeds of exotic beef cows in Kenya are Aberdeen Angus, Charolais, Brown Swiss, and Hereford.


The Zebu is among the most popular of all indigenous beef cattle in Kenya. The breed originated from India, and due to the similarities in the climatic conditions in Africa and India, it quickly become the cattle of choice for many communities. Through cross-breeding, the Zebu has continually evolved into a breed of choice in Kenya for both meat and milk production.

Zebu Livestock Farming

The Zebu is classified into two sub-groups according to the body size, the small Zebu and the large Zebu. The small Zebu is the predominant subbreed in Kenya, with the large Zebu being found in small parts of the country and some of the neighboring counties like Ethiopia and Eritrea.

The Zebu cattle in Kenya have several functions, which depend on the local communities. They are used as beasts of labor in Eastern Province, while in other communities they are used as a source of both meat and milk for domestic purposes.

In Kenya, pastoral livestock farming experiences many challenges, ranging from reduced live weights, low animal productivity, advanced calving age, and high death rates. The Zebu is said to be a solution to all these problems since they have adapted well to the Kenyan climatic conditions. They have improved body weight, productivity, calving age, and low mortality.


The Boran is another indigenous cattle in Kenya, which is used mostly for meat livestock farming. Through cross-breeding, this breed has also been adopted to provide milk to the indigenous communities in the country. The Boran is ailed as the hardiest breed of cattle in Kenya, with many agricultural organizations urging the locals to switch to this kind of livestock farming.

Boran Livestock Farming

The Boran cows are indigenously bred from the Zebu of the Borana Oromo people in southern Ethiopia, hence the name. The Boran cattle are very well adapted to local conditions and parasites. They are also known for their fertility, early maturation, hardiness, and docility.

Boran cattle come in many coat colors, with white, red, and black being the most common. The breed is also an improvement on the Zebu, and therefore an enhancement of the beef livestock production in the country. Male Boran cows weigh between 225 Kg-400 kg, while the females weigh between 250 Kg-350 Kg. That is a great improvement on the short Zebu cows, which have been the main breed in many parts of rural Kenya.


The Sahiwal is the last indigenous cattle breed common in Kenya’s beef livestock farming. The breed has its origins in Pakistan and India, and it was imported into the country to help increase both meat and livestock farming, owing to the harsh climatic conditions in the country.

Sahiwal Livestock Farming

The Sahiwal is thought to be the answer to the low livestock production effects in the arid and semi-arid areas of the country. It also offers improved benefits because it can do well for milk livestock farming. Many of the pastoralist communities and subsistence farmers that used to keep many Zebu and Boran cows are now slowly replacing their herds with the Sahiwal. That is because they have realized they can reap the same benefits with this breed at a less cost of production.

The Sahiwal cattle give a balanced output of both meat and milk with less management and can withstand arid climatic conditions, which are predominant in the pastoralist communities. Today, among the cattle population of the Maasai community in Kajiado County, over half are Sahiwal. That shows how this breed is transforming the livelihoods of this community.

Aberdeen Angus

The Aberdeen Angus is among the few exotic breeds in beef livestock farming. This breed has also been used to improve the indigenous breeds like the Sahiwal and the Zebu. These cattle are naturally polled, therefore, you do not need to dehorn them. They can be black or red, although black is the common color, white may occasionally appear on the udder.

Like most cows used in meat livestock production, the Angus beef breed is very tolerant and can survive in semi-arid areas such as Naivasha and Laikipia. They also have superior feed conversion. They are very adaptable, good-natured and mature extremely early, and have a high carcass yield with tender meat, which is why they are kept for beef production.


The Charolais is another breed that is quickly becoming popular in the Kenyan beef livestock farming scene. It is white with a pink muzzle and pale hooves. They are born with horns, therefore, dehorning is necessary for easy handling. Although white is the dominant color among the cattle breed, there are now Charolais cattle being bred black and red in colors. Charolais are medium to large-framed beef cattle with a very deep and broad body. They have a short, broad heads and heavily muscled loins and haunches.

This breed of cattle is a predominant breed in South Africa, from where it is gradually finding its way to Kenya. The Charolais are hardy animals that can adapt to various climatic conditions. They can graze on pasture that many other breeds cannot use and gain weight and muscle rapidly. Charolais bulls can weigh up to 1,130kg and females up to 900kg. The breed is also being used to cross breed with dairy cows to produce harsh climate tolerant varieties which can also be used as dual-purpose breeds.


The Hereford has also been introduced in Kenya as a beef-producing breed. The Hereford are black or brown with a white head, crest, dewlap, or underline. These cattle are known for their vigor and foraging ability. They are also very docile breeds, thus, allowing easier handling than other breeds in beef livestock farming.

This breed is however not doing well as ranch cattle. That has made it necessary for most farmers to keep them under zero grazing. With the quantities of feed required to sustain beef cattle, it becomes expensive for the farmer to feed them under zero grazing. That makes the profits from breed farming go down. The current farmers in the current also say that they are not very tolerant of tropical livestock diseases, and are better used as cross breeds to improve the local breeds like the Zebu.

C. Dual-Purpose Livestock Farming

Dual-purpose livestock production is increasingly becoming the accepted moe of livestock farming in Kenya. Dula-purpose cattle minimize the costs of maintaining pure breeds while ensuring that the farmer can maximize production. Most of the pure breeds especially for milk livestock farming are exotic, which means they are not well suited for the Kenyan climatic conditions. Other farmers are from regions with low feed supply, which makes it expensive to manage the pure breeds.

Most of the dual-purpose cattle in Kenya are a cross breed between the indigenous breeds like the Zebu and Sahiwal with the exotic breeds like the Friesian and the Ayrshire. That gives the farmer a cow with improved milk production as well as increased body mass which is good for meat.

Apart from the local cross breeds, the Kenyan livestock production scene has two other prominent dual-purpose cattle breeds, the Brown Swiss and Fleckvieh. The following is a description of each breed:

Brown Swiss

The Brown Swiss, which was introduced in the country some six years ago, the greyish cow, which is native to Switzerland, has the potential to boost dairy farming in semi-arid areas as well as maintain the beef requirements. The breed is said to produce up to 27 liters of milk per day, with bulls weighing up to 700 Kg. This kind of milk capacity, body mass, plus the high disease tolerance of this breed of cattle makes it suitable for a majority of Kenyan cattle farmers.

Other farmers are using the pure breed, Brown Swiss, to improve the local breeds. That has resulted in increased milk production and improved body mass, hence an increase in profits for the farmers.

Although the Brown Swiss is considered an exotic breed in Kenya’s livestock farming, the breed has been said to adapt well to the Kenyan climate, with many farmers in the semi-arid areas of the country showing a preference for the breed as both a milk producer and meat provider.


The Fleckvieh is the other dual-purpose cow that is said to be a current preference for many farmers. In livestock production, it is the dream of every farmer to have low-maintenance cattle with maximum production. The Fleckvieh cattle breed could be considered the best option one would pick on for meat and milk production. It is an excellent dual-purpose breed with high milk yields per lactation and increased body mass, especially for the bulls.

Fleckvieh Livestock Farming

This cattle breed is said to originate from Central Europe due to the cross breed of the local cattle with Simmental, which is a breed imported from Switzerland. The breed is termed a ‘universal breed’ due to its adaptability to different environments and animal husbandry methods.

The Fleckvieh are easily identified by their characteristic dominantly white head, spotting a wide muzzle. The rest of the body may be spotted, speckled or solid. The two main colors are various shades of red on white. The animals are usually large-framed and possess strong robust legs, well-adapted to suit numerous environments. An excellent feed conversion rate enables them to efficiently convert roughage into quality beef or milk. The Fleckvieh can gain up to 1.4kg per day depending on the quality of feed.

Types of Cattle Farming in Kenya

In Kenya, there are mainly two types of cattle farming, commercial and subsistence farming.

Commercial cattle farming

In commercial cattle farming, the farmer keeps various types of milk purely for business. Whether it’s milk, meat, or selling calves, the sole purpose of the whole farming enterprise is to generate income. Most of the commercial cattle farms in Kenya are kept mainly for milk and meat. The cattle are intensively kept and usually involve heavy investments.

Farmers who practice commercial cattle farming also provide jobs for the unemployed. These farms are labor-intensive and require a lot of manpower to run and operate successfully. Commercial cattle farms are purely for making profits, and that is why the farmers come up with ways to maximize outputs at the least possible costs.

Most of the breeds found in commercial cattle farms are exotic. That is because these breeds give maximum outputs with the proper care and management. The profitability of these farms depends on the quality and quantity of the cattle products. That is why the farmers strive o have the best breeds, which come at a high price. In Kenya, most of the exotic breeds are found on breeding farms or from agricultural corporations.

Subsistence cattle farming

Subsistence cattle farming is the kind of livestock production practiced in a majority of the areas in Kenya. It can also be referred to as small-scale cattle farming since it does not require a lot of capital to start and run. Many of the farmers practicing subsistence cattle farming are in it as a source of food, with the surplus used to earn little income.

six out of ten rural households practice subsistence cattle farming. The majority of the cows kept are for milking purposes, with a majority of the output used at home while only the surplus is sold. The majority of the surplus is sold to locals since it is little to be sold to commercial dairy plants.

Many of the breeds are indigenous breeds, with cross-breeds and dual-purpose cattle used by those who want to improve production. The farms are not labor-intensive and most of the work is done by family members.

Subsistence cattle farming is the best starting point for beginners since it can be practiced in many parts of the country. For those who want to venture into cattle keeping, it is always advisable to start with a few cows and keep it small-scale until you have gained enough experience and knowledge to go commercial.

Cattle Farming Systems in Kenya

Cattle farmers in Kenya keep their cattle through free-range, ranching, and zero-grazing methods. The system used usually depends on the type of farming practice, with commercial farmers going for ranching and zero-grazing methods while most small-scale farmers practice free-range cattle keeping. There is also organic cattle farming, which is a non-conventional way of livestock production that emphasizes the kind of pasture used and restricts the use of antibiotics and growth hormones in cattle.

1. Zero-grazing system

The zero-grazing system of cattle farming is whereby the cattle are kept on the farm while the farmer brings them the feeds and water. That is as opposed to taking the cattle to feed themselves in the fields. The cattle are usually kept in special structures or barns, where they eat, drink, and sleep. The milking is also done on these structures.

Zero-grazing is usually practiced by farmers who keep exotic breeds of dairy cows, although some breeds of exotic beef cows can also be kept under this system. In Kenya, zero-grazing is usually practiced by large-scale farmers, with a few farmers adapting to the system in the semi-arid areas. The system is said to give the farmer the greatest benefits per kilogram of feed-in both dairy and beef cattle.

For a zero-grazing system to work, there are some factors that a farmer must consider. These are:

  • Safety: A good dairy animal is a costly investment that should be secured. This can be ensured by an appropriate selection of the unit location. Locating the unit close to farmhouses will contribute to security. When choosing the location also take into account the wind direction to make sure that the wind can carry away the dung smell.
  • Ventilation: In livestock production, good ventilation is of the utmost importance. It ensures a good respiratory system as well adding comfort to the animal. That will increase the level of production, especially for dairy cattle. Ventilation is also critical in regulating temperatures in the cattle structures which reduces stress on the cattle.
  • Isolation: In livestock farming keeping, it is important to keep the animals isolated. That is why a good zero-grazing system should ensure that all the cattle are isolated. That helps the farmer reduce injuries caused by infighting and mounting, control breeding, and reduce the spread of diseases in case of an outbreak.
  • Maintenance: Livestock production emphasizes the need for regular maintenance of the animal housing structures. In zero-grazing, this becomes important since the floor may develop holes that can cause injuries to the cattle. The roof may also be leaking which means the cattle shed is waterlogged when it rains. These occurrences will distress the cattle resulting in low production, especially for dairy cattle.

Although it is said that zero-grazing is practiced by those farmers who lack enough land to practice the other systems, this system has its advantages. These are:

  • Maximizing production with fewer feeds. Livestock production may be an expensive exercise, especially when there are fewer feeds due to droughts and other phenomena. Zero-grazing affords the farmer a chance to save feeds, which means that the cattle will still have fodder even when there a fewer available.
  • Free-range grazing adds pressure to the land, with a risk of overgrazing which eventually leads to desertification. That is why zero-grazing is advised whenever possible.
  • In livestock farming, the spread of diseases is hard to control due to the clustering of animals in feeding areas and watering spots. Zero-grazing keeps the cattle isolated, with each cow with its feeding and watering spot. That isolation of cattle means that diseases are better managed especially after an outbreak.
  • Zero-grazing in livestock production makes the collection of manure simpler. It concentrates all the manure in the same place which can then be used for crop farming. That will reduce the costs of crop farming or fodder production.

With the above advantages of zero-grazing, the system has a few shortcomings. The following are the disadvantages of zero-grazing:

  • The system is an expensive means of livestock production since it requires a lot of labor to bring fodder and water to the cattle while on the housing structures.
  • There are also great costs involved in the construction of the cattle sheds, which are sometimes very high for a normal farmer to manage.
  • Zero-grazing livestock farming is considered a cruel way of livestock production. That is because the cattle are constantly confined in the same place with little or no movement allowed. That increases stress on the cattle.

2. Ranching system

Ranching is a system of livestock production which involves the keeping of farm animals on a large scale and on a large expanse of enclosed land, which may be under natural vegetation or planted pasture. The animals are allowed to move about and graze freely on the ranch. The farmer may have to supply the animals with supplement feeds in the form of concentrates, vitamins, and minerals. Enough water is also supplied by the farmer.

A ranch should be fenced and provided with stockades, crushes, animal dips, and sheds or corrals, to harbor the animals during bad weather. Sheds are also needed to keep and treat sick animals. In ranching, it is possible to adopt rotational grazing, whereby the ranch is divided into sections and each section is used for a certain period before the animals are moved to other sections one after the other.

The following are the advantages of a ranching system of livestock production:

  • Selective breeding can be practiced.
  • The rancher can easily observe and identify animals that are sick.
  • There is the availability of pasture all the year-round.
  • The regular supply of water is assured.
  • There is a low incidence of diseases and pests.
  • High-quality animals are produced
  • The low death rate of animals is recorded.

The following are the disadvantages of ranching livestock farming:

  • The available land and pasture may not be enough for the available stock.
  • It is very difficult to give individual attention to each animal on the ranch.
  • It is very expensive to manage a ranch
  • An outbreak of disease may affect the whole stock or prove to be hard to manage.

3. Free-range system

In a free-range system of livestock farming, the cattle roam freely in large areas of land regardless of the land ownership. In Kenya, the system is mostly practiced by the pastoral communities who keep moving about with their cattle. The main difference between a free-range system and the ranching system is that in a free-range system, the land has no boundary or it’s not fenced while a ranch is a huge area of land that is fenced with a clear owner.

Free-range cattle are said to be healthier because they are freer and have large tracts of land from which they can eat. That means the farmer will save a lot of expenses that are associated with feeds.

In modern society, free-range cattle will roam and feed during the day and be brought back to the homesteads in the evening. It is a cattle farming method that is practiced in many areas of rural Kenya. The farmers are mostly small-scale, with the indigenous breeds of Zebu, Boran, and Sahiwal being the most common.

Free-range livestock farming has been touted as the best system of livestock production since the cattle are mostly in their natural habitat. But environmentalists claim that this system is one of the leading causes of desertification, especially in rural Kenya. That is because the cattle may over-graze and the farmers do not limit the number of animals in their herds.

4. Organic system

Organic livestock production is an unconventional way of cattle farming where the farmer feeds the cattle organic feeds with no growth hormones or the use of antibiotics. For organic cattle farming, the following requirements should be fulfilled:

  • Animals must be managed in a way that conserves natural resources and biodiversity.
  • No antibiotics or artificial growth hormones are allowed.
  • All feed must be 100% certified organic and animals must be raised on certified organic land.
  • Animals must have year-round access to the outdoors.

With these strict requirements, an organic cattle farmer must be certified by the authorities. The source of the cattle feeds should be also certified as fully organic. That way, the cattle, and the products will be said to be organic and allowed to be sold labeled as organic.

Organic cattle or livestock farming has the following benefits:

  • Consumers regard organic cattle products like milk and beef as more nutritious than conventionally raised cattle.
  • The cattle help in weed management on the farm by feeding on them.
  • The soil on the farm is more fertile because it’s fertilized by manure.
  • Outdoor grazing of cattle can make use of marginalized land which is not good for crop farming.

In Kenya, Biozone products are the best when it comes to organic farming. These products offer the best organic solutions to farmers for their cattle requirements. Many farmers have tried and tested these products and the results have been nothing short of amazing.

Organic Livestock Farming

The Biozone Milk Booster-BFB is a certified fully organic product that can be used both as feed and as a food concentrate. The following are the benefits of this product:

  • Timely heat induction for the cows.
  • Improved digestion leads to improved production.
  • Regulated cow menstrual cycle which leads to timely calving.
  • Boosts disease resistance which means healthier and more productive cows.
  • The product has enough calcium which means there is no need for extra calcium for cows fed on this product.

Benefits of Cattle Farming

The following are some of the benefits associated with cattle livestock production:

  • Milk cattle are used widely for processing milk
  • The draught cattle are commonly used for labor In connection with streams such as in agriculture where they are used in carting and irrigation.
  • The cattle farm is considered to improve farmers’ total income and boost their living conditions.
  • As a means of manure for soil enrichment and as a source of biofuel, the animal waste which is produced can be used.
  • For a significant number of people, it is a source of employment.

Challenges Facing Cattle Farmers in Kenya

Cattle farmers in Kenya face many problems which affect the productivity of their cattle. These problems are:

  • High concentrates prices: For cattle, especially dairy cows, the farmer needs to add concentrates to the feeds. That ensures a high milk production at fewer feeds. When the prices of these concentrates go up, the farmers incur extra costs of production which eats at their profits.
  • Feed shortage: In livestock farming, the availability of feeds is one of the main factors to consider before starting. That is because it will determine the success or failure of the entire enterprise. In Kenya, especially in the arid and semi-arid areas, cattle feed is gradually decreasing due to unfavorable weather conditions. That affects the production and decreased profits.
  • Increased labor costs: Intensive or large-scale dairy livestock farming needs a constant skilled labor supply. With many people going for white-collar jobs, farm laborers become few and expensive to the farmer.
  • Land shortage: Many farmers in Kenya are forced o adopt to intensive livestock farming systems like zero-grazing due to a lack of enough land for free-range farming. That locks out many potential farmers due to the capital requirements for starting the venture.
  • Diseases: In Kenya, cattle diseases and outbreaks increase the mortality rates of cattle, which affects production and hence investments.
  • Low product prices: Cattle products, especially milk, have a lot of fluctuating prices in Kenya. That makes it hard for the farmers to have good plans for the future. That means farmers cannot adequately prepare for expansions.
  • Water shortage: In the arid and semi-arid areas of Kenya, frequent water shortages make it hard for cattle farmers in these areas to have enough water for their cattle. That makes overall cattle farming very difficult.
  • Limited market: Cattle farmers in Kenya lack sufficient markets for their products. That has been occasioned by middlemen who exploit the farmers and result in low incomes for cattle products.

FAQs About Cattle Farming In Kenya

Is cattle farming profitable?

Whether cattle farming is profitable is something on many people’s minds. The answer is YES. The profitability of cattle farming will depend on the effort you put into your cattle and the kind of cattle farming practices you keep. With the high unemployment rates in Kenya, young people are advised to seek alternative sources of income, and cattle farming or livestock production is one of those ways.

Which is more profitable between dairy and beef cattle farming?

Some wonder which s more profitable between beef and dairy farming. Dairy farming is considered labor and capital intensive and therefore it is not advisable for beginners. Beef cattle farming needs fewer resources and expertise to start and run, and therefore, it is considered more profitable, especially for beginners.

How can a beginner start a cattle farm?

Some ask how potential farmers can start a cattle farm. You should have three important things before venturing into livestock production: a business plan, a piece of land, and start-up capital. You should build all the structures the farm needs and then get a few cows. Make the cows profitable and then build from there.

2. Goat Farming

Goat farming in Kenya is among the most practiced forms of livestock production. It is a form of farming that is rapidly gaining momentum even in urban areas and densely populated areas in the country. That is because goat farming does not need a lot of capital and resources to begin and run. Many goat farmers are mostly found in the rural part of Kenya, with large-scale farmers successfully and profitably turning it into a thriving business venture.

Before going further into goat farming, you should first know about the popular breeds in Kenya. Goats in Kenya are either for milk, meat, or dual-purpose. The type of breed to keep depends on individual preferences and the resources available.

A. Dairy Goat Farming

In Kenya, many goat breeds are used for producing milk. But before choosing the best breed for you, there are general points you should know about dairy goats:

  • Dairy goats are milked twice a day, 12 hours apart.
  • Dairy goats must be bred and give birth once or twice a year to produce milk.
  • Dairy goats need good pasture, hay, and minerals.
  • The feed content of dairy goats is important since they spend most of their lives pregnant or lactating.
  • Goat milk and cow milk taste the same when raw.

The following are the main dairy breeds in Kenya:


Originally from Switzerland, the Saanen goat is hailed as the best dairy goat breed in livestock production. It is known as the queen of milk because they’re the most productive dairy goat breed, and its milk is lower in fat than other breeds. For the farmer who wants a lot of goat milk, this is the most recommended breed.

Saanen Goat Livestock Farming

They’re large and heavy, but these goats are generally easy to handle because of their friendly and quiet nature. Due to the amount of land needed to raise these goats, many farmers have opted to cross-breed them with other breeds to reduce their size but still maintain high levels of milk production. You’ll know if it’s a Saanen goat if it has short, fine hair, white or cream color, ears that are erect and pointing forward, and a straight or dished face. 

The advantages of this breed of goats are that; produce between 5 and 10 liters of milk per day, are easy to handle, and they are friendly, calm, and quiet.

The disadvantages are that; their milk has low butter fat, the milk is less creamy, and they are heavy and require more space.


Just like the Saanen, the Toggenburg goats are originally from Switzerland. These goats have short hair coats and a face characterized by a straight face with two white stripes from their muzzle to their eyes and poll. They’re moderate in production, and their milk only has 2 to 3 percent butterfat, which is relatively low, which means their milk is less creamy. However, Toggenburg goats are gentle and intelligent, and because of their long winter coat, they can produce milk even in cooler months.

Toggenburg Goat Livestock Farming

They are mostly dark chocolate, with mature males standing at 75 centimeters while females stand at 70 centimeters. They produce between 4 and 5 liters of milk per day. Their milk contains between 2% and 3% butterfat content and the female’s lactate for an average of 290 days per year.

The advantages of keeping these goats in livestock farming are that; they are intelligent, they are a hardy breed, they have a relatively high milk production, their milk has a sweet flavor, and they require low feeds.

The disadvantages are that; their milk is low in butter fat, and they have a reduced heat tolerance.


Jamunapari Goat Livestock Farming

The Jamunapari is another popular milk goat breed in Kenya. It is originally from India, and it is said to produce an average of 3,5 liters of milk per day. Their body is longer than other goats and comes in a myriad of colors including white, black, yellow, brown, or various mixed colors. They have a pair of short horns which are curved backward.

The Jamnunapari is considered a large goat breed with an adult male goat weighing about 65-90 kg and an adult female goat weighing about 40-60 kg. The milk is considered tastier and healthy as compared to other goat milk and has a butterfat content of 5%.


Bari Livestock Farming

The Barbari or simply Bari is another common breed of dairy goats in Kenya. Originally from India, these goats are smaller in size compared to other dairy breeds, with adult males standing at 71 centimeters and weighing an average of 38 Kgs while females stand at 56 centimeters and weigh around 23 Kgs.

The Barbari is a small goat of compact form. The head is small and neat, with small upward-pointing ears and small horns. The coat is short and is most commonly white spotted with brownish red; solid colors also occur. The goat is well adapted to the Kenyan climate and is mostly used in intensive livestock farming.

B. Meat Goat Farming

In Kenya, goat meat is becoming a favorite among many consumers. That has made this kind of livestock farming lucrative. For meat goats, you should choose goats with a high feed conversion rate and those that produce good quality meat. If you are buying baby goats, make sure they are properly vaccinated.

The following are the common meat goat breeds in Kenya:


The Boer is a popular meat goat choice in Kenya because of its fast growth rate and hardiness. They’re the largest goat breed with an excellent growth rate and may gain more than 400 grams per day, but it can vary depending on the feedlot conditions, but they’re in demand because they grow fast and produce desirable meat.

Boer Goat Livestock Farming

These goats are among the most popular goats in Kenya today with meat goat farmers, and they’re recognizable due to their red or brownish heads and red portions on their necks. They often have a white coat, but some have large patches of color or spots all over their bodies and heads with long dropping ears.

Their size may vary depending on their genetics and body structure, but this breed usually reaches its market weight as early as 3 to 6 months of age. Mature Boers are known to weigh up to 40 kg.

The Boers are advantageous because they are docile, have a first growth rate, are highly fertile, and they have large sturdy frames. But they are also known to be more susceptible to internal parasites, especially when raised in hot conditions.


Originally from New Zealand, the Kiko is also a popular breed of meat goats in Kenya. They don’t rely much on humans, and they’re pretty good at rearing their children and thrive in harsh environments with few resources. They can also be used as good cross-breeders of other breeds.

Kiko Goat Livestock Farming

These meat goats are part of one of the hardiest breeds available and are significantly less expensive than Boer goats, yet they produce approximately identical quantities and meat quality. Most Kikos are solid white or cream with black hues, and they can easily attain a weight of over 40 Kg.

These goats are favorites among meat goat farmers because they are:

  • Active, alert, but calm and easygoing.
  • Aggressive foragers
  • Resistant to parasites
  • Less prone to foot-rot problems
  • Prolific and tolerant of harsh conditions

But with all these advantages, these goats are known to be aggressive and hence not easy o handle for beginners.


The Tennessee goats are also among the most preferred by meat goat farmers in Kenya. Originally from America, these goats are also known as Myotonic goats since they suffer from a muscular condition that makes them faint when excited or startled. Their muscles experience prolonged contraction, become rigid and stiff, and cause them to faint. Stiffness can vary in each goat, but it’s not a faint related to the nervous system but instead a muscular phenomenon.

Tennessee Goat Livestock Farming

In meat goat livestock production, body density and muscle mass are some of the important characteristics to look out for when choosing your goats, and these gats are heavily dense and muscled, hence a nice choice for farmers. They feature concave facial features with a more prominent and horizontal ear which are drooping. They also have horns and short coat hair which has different color combinations including black and white, solid tan, all white, tan and white, and black and roan.

These goats are spirited but gentle, calm, and affectionate. They are also highly reproductive with some giving birth twice a year with many cases of twins and triplets. Tennessee’s are however smaller than Boers in size which makes them have less weight.

C. Dual-Purpose Goat Farming

Dual-purpose goats are kept for both milk and meat. In Kenya, dual-purpose livestock farming is important, especially in the rural areas where farmers depend on their livestock for both food and income. In Kenya’s arid and semi-arid areas where goat farming is more prominent, the farmers want to have milk as well as sell their goats for meat. That is why dual-purpose goats make up the majority of the goat population in these areas.

The following are the common dual-purpose goats in Kenya:


Pygmy goats are among the best when it comes to goats for both meat and milk in Kenya. They may have small stature, but these goats can produce as much milk as standard dairy producers like Saanen. On top of that, their milk contains 4.5% to 11% butterfat, making them ideal for creating butter and cheese.

Pygmy Goat Livestock Farming

Pygmy goats also have a muscular physique. That’s why they’re an excellent choice for meat production despite their size. Additionally, this breed can also work and excel in weed-eating tasks. Pygmy goats can also pass as pets, and they’re generally affordable and suitable even for small acreages.

These goats come in different coat shades which include light/white caramel, medium, dark, and dark red caramel, silver or light agouti, and other shades of agouti. They have a lactation period of 180 days and they can weigh up to 28 Kg.

The advantages of the pygmy goats are:

  • Docile and intelligent.
  • Long milk shelf life.
  • High butterfat content.
  • Disease resistant and hardy.
  • Minimal feed requirements.
  • Easy to handle and transport.

Although they have many advantages, these goats are known to be vocal, easily bored, and with small hard to milk teats, which make for their shortcomings.


Nubian goats are also popular because they can give farmers sufficient milk and meat. With 4.9%+ butterfat content, this goat breed can, without a doubt, shine in the cheese and ice cream department. This breed is friendly and curious and loves to have interaction with humans. However, they can be loud when they’re dissatisfied, and neighbors will surely hear them. So it is advised to keep water, food, and shelter accessible at all times to silence them.

Nubian Goat Livestock Farming

These goats have a good lactation period of 288 days, stand at a minimum of 80 centimeters, and can weigh up to 40 Kg.

They have the following advantages in livestock farming:

  • Friendly
  • Higher protein and butterfat content
  • Heat tolerant
  • Prolific mothers
  • Heavy muscling
  • Few health problems

Despite these advantages, these goats have several shortcomings in that they are extremely noisy and do not do well in cold climates.

Nigerian Dwarf

As the name says, the Nigerian Dwarf is a dual-purpose goat originally from Nigeria which is also s among the favorites in Kenya. Because of its size, this goat breed is best suited for those who are in shortage of land. Because of the high butter fat content in their milk, it is good for producing butter and cheese.

Nigerian Dwarf Goat Livestock Farming

They have a lactation period of 305 days which is among the highest in goats. Their milk has 6%-10% butterfat content and is gold in color and tastier. Mature goats can be up to 23 inches tall and weigh up to 40 Kg.

The advantages of this goat breed are:

  • Low feed requirements.
  • Ideal for tiny acreages.
  • Highest butterfat content.
  • Excellent maternal instincts.
  • Can conceive 3 to 4 kids at a time.

Despite these advantages, these goats are aggressive, especially to pets and kids whom they perceive as threatening which is their greatest disadvantage.

Goat Farming Systems in Kenya

In Kenya, there are various systems used in goat farming. The system used by a farmer depends on the resources available and the type of goats to be kept. The models used in Kenya in livestock farming for goats are intensive, extensive, semi-intensive, and organic systems.

1. Intensive goat farming system

In an intensive goat farming system, also called zero-grazing, the farmer keeps the goats in a shelter all the time and provides the feeds and water. The movements of the goats are limited to the size of the shelter. The system is associated with a decrease in grazing dependence and an increase in the use of concentrated feeds, mainly cereals, to supplement natural feeds. The farmer concentrated on feeding the goats a balanced diet to attain a high conversion ratio for both meat and milk.

The intensive system implies a high density of animal concentration per area unit, under reproductive and sanitary control, and the feeding process includes advanced technologies. The system is also labor intensive especially when it comes to feeding and milking the goats.

To meet the feed requirements of the goats, this system is usually practiced in areas with high pasture yields, which means regular rainfall, or with good access to water systems that can be used for irrigation. The areas are also cooler without extreme heat or cold periods. That is why the system is common in many parts of central Kenya and in some parts of the Rift Valley where the climate is conducive.

The breeds used in the intensive system must have high fertility and growth rates so that the farmer can get good results for their intensive investments, and that is why many of the breeds found in this system are exotic with high milk production or high body mass for meat purposes.

The following are the major advantages of this kind of goat livestock farming:

  • Breeding of the goats is controlled since there will be no cross-breeding.
  • The multiplication of the flock is controlled since the farmer controls the breeding.
  • If practiced properly, it leads to higher yields.
  • The system is independent of climatic conditions.
  • The system results in high fertility rates.
  • Diseases are easily controlled especially outbreaks.

The disadvantages of the system in livestock production for goats are:

  • The system needs a lot of capital to set up and run.
  • The system is labor-intensive which adds to the expenses.
  • In case of an outbreak among the goats, the diseases will be quickly transmitted.
  • The system is considered cruel to animals.

2. Extensive goat farming system

An extensive goat farming system is characterized by large areas to feed the animals, with a low animal density. It uses soils of poor agricultural ability, located in mountainous areas with large rainfall or in areas of low rainfall, sometimes with extreme temperatures. The system uses goat breeds that are perfectly adapted to the environment, but with lower yields. It is the most common system of livestock production for goats in most rural areas of Kenya.

The goat produced in this system is mostly for family consumption while the meat is sold to act as a supplementary source of income for the family. Usually, the number of goats produced is low and they are usually raised under climate adversities, where probably there are no shelters, no food supplementation and also often these animals have hygienic-sanitary problems, which leads to poor economic results.

In this kind of goat livestock farming, the use of natural pastures can be done in two ways, a mobile grazing system and a sedentary grazing system. The first is characterized by annual or seasonal movements of the animals with the shepherd to new places in search of feed, and while sedentary grazing, the animals are driven freely to pastures near the farm, usually keeping the animals at night in the stable.

The following are the advantages of this system in livestock farming:

  • The system needs less capital to start and run.
  • The system mostly uses family labor which cuts the costs to the farmers.
  • The system keeps good adaptive breeds.
  • The goats are free to roam around which keeps them healthy.
  • Many consumers prefer free-range meat to intensively produced meat.
  • In the case of outbreaks, diseases do not spread quickly.

The following are the main disadvantages of this system of livestock farming for goats:

  • The breeding and multiplication of goats are hard to control.
  • The system is dependent on climatic conditions.
  • The system results in lower production rates.
  • Control of diseases is hard when they break out.

3. Semi-intensive goat farming

Semi-intensive system of goat production is an intermediate compromise between extensive and intensive systems followed in areas with limited grazing fields. It involves extensive management but usually with controlled grazing of fenced pasture. It consists of the provision of stall feeding, shelter at night under a shed, and a 3 to 5-hour daily grazing and browsing on pasture and range.

This system of livestock production in goats aims at increasing the levels of production from those low levels experienced in extensive goat farming while cutting the high costs associated with the intensive goat farming system.

The advantages of this system of livestock farming in goats are:

  • Meeting the nutrient requirement both from grazing and stall feeding.
  • Managing medium to a large flock of 50 to 350 heads and above.
  • Utilizing cultivated forage during the lean period.
  • Harvesting a good crop of kids both for meat and milk.
  • Making a profitable gain due to less labor input.

4. Organic goat farming

Organic goat farming is another system of livestock farming in goats that is gaining momentum in Kenya and globally. Consumers are moving towards healthier products, not only fruits and vegetables but also meat and dairy products. Research has shown that the natural or organic food industry is growing by about 20% a year, so dairy and meat goat farmers who sell their meat or dairy products need to give serious consideration to changing their methods if they want to be part of that trend. Switching to certified organically raised goats can mean a higher price for dairy products and meat which translates to more profits for the farmer.

That is because people are growing more concerned about GMO crops, exposure to pesticides, out-of-control use of antibiotics, and other chemicals in food animals as well as the perception that organic is better for health.

In goat livestock production, before a farmer can be certified as an organic farmer, some requirements must be met. These are:

Pasture requirements

To be certified organic, goats must be raised on pasture that is certified organic. This requires that no pesticides, herbicides, chemical fertilizers, or any other restricted materials be used. Unless the pasture land to be used for goats is already certified, obtaining initial certification will take time.

The farmer also has to avoid overstocking which will lead to overgrazed pasture land. Overgrazed pasture, or pasture otherwise lacking vegetation, is considered not to meet pasture standards under the certification requirements.

Living condition requirements

The living conditions is another important factor to consider in goat livestock production. The goats must have unlimited access to the grazing fields all day and only be confined in shelters at night. The shelter provided must promote the healthy and natural behaviors and maintenance of the goats. This includes ensuring that they are safe (minimize hazards to prevent injury), have an opportunity to exercise, are protected from severe temperatures, have adequate ventilation, and have appropriate bedding (clean and dry).

Organic goats can only be confined in cases of disease outbreaks, extreme weather conditions, or when there is a direct threat to the goats. The confinement periods must be properly documented. The bedding used for goat shelters must also be certified organic, whether it is straw, wood chips, or wood pellets, because goats may eat the bedding.

Feed and supplements requirements

Organic goats in livestock production have strict feed and supplement requirements. Organic livestock may be fed only hay, grain, milk replacer, minerals, and any other supplement such as kelp or beet pulp that is certified organic. That means the feeds and supplements are not genetically modified and may not contain synthetic hormones, antibiotics, coccidiostats, or other restricted materials.

Restricted materials for organic livestock include:

  • Animal drugs and synthetic hormones.
  • Plastic pellets.
  • Urea.
  • Manure (including poultry litter).
  • Slaughter by-products.
  • Excessive amounts of feed supplements or additives.
  • Synthetic amino acids.

Healthcare requirements

Healthcare when it comes to organic goat livestock farming is a very crucial factor. health care can be one of the most challenging aspects of organic goat farming basics. A goat cannot be certified organic if it has been treated with antibiotics or a synthetic or non-synthetic substance that is prohibited by organic requirements.

The most important aspect of healthcare when it comes to organic goat livestock farming is prevention. The farmers are also encouraged to find treatment methods that are organic and that are effective whenever their goats get ill. Farmers are encouraged to use preventive health care practices (vaccination is allowed), not treat goats that are not sick (e.g., giving antibiotics or dewormers routinely), and make sure the goats’ living conditions and feed ration promote good health.

In Kenya, Biozone products are the best when it comes to organic farming. These products offer the best organic solutions to farmers for their goat requirements. Many farmers have tried and tested these products and the results have been nothing short of amazing.

Organic Livestock Farming

The Biozone Milk Booster-BFB is a certified fully organic product that can be used both as feed and as a food concentrate. The following are the benefits of this product to your goats:

  • Timely heat induction for the cows.
  • Improved digestion leads to improved production.
  • Regulated goat menstrual cycle which leads to timely calving.
  • Boosts disease resistance which means healthier and more productive cows.
  • The product has enough calcium which means there is no need for extra calcium for goats fed on this product.

Factors to Consider Before Choosing Goat Breeds.

Before choosing goats for livestock production, there are some factors you have to consider to help you make the right decisions. These factors are:

  • Goal and purpose for the goats. Each goat breed has different characteristics that make them better at a particular job. Some are excellent milk producers, while others are more suitable for meat production. To ensure you choose the right goat breed, you need to determine what its purpose will be in your homestead.
  • Size of goat preferred. In goat livestock production, it is important to consider the size of goat you prefer. If you want more meat, you’ll go with large meat goats. You may also have to handle or move your goat in medical emergencies, so you need to know what size you are comfortable with.
  • The land and feed available. In livestock production, the amount of land and feed available plays a major role in the success or failure of the farming venture. Most goat breeds are foragers who love grazing or browsing in leafy weeds, shrubby plants, and trees. They can even climb on sloped, rocky terrains that other livestock can’t access. That means the amount of land available should determine the number of goats you should keep.
  • The temperament of the goat. The temperament of the goat is also an important factor in goat livestock production. Some goats are calm and docile, while others can be aggressive and unfriendly towards children and pets. That’s why you need to know the temperament of your chosen breed.

Benefits of Goat Farming

The following are the benefits of keeping goats in livestock farming:

  • Goat livestock farming needs less capital to start and run than other types of livestock farming.
  • Goats have fewer management problems because of their body size.
  • Goats do not need heavy structural investments like most other livestock.
  • Goats mature early, which means quick returns on investment.
  • Goats multiply quickly which translates o more profits for the farmer.
  • Goats are hardy and can survive in adverse climatic conditions.
  • Goats can thrive in many different environments, unlike other animals.
  • Goat livestock farming in rural areas is a source of income for the unemployed.
  • Goat livestock production is a source of food, especially in rural areas.

FAQs About Goat Farming in Kenya

How profitable is goat farming in Kenya?

One of the leading questions in many people’s minds in Kenya is whether goat livestock farming is a profitable venture. The answer is YES. Comparing goats with other types of livestock like cattle, goats mature fast and need fewer resources to maintain. That means profits will take a very short time to start coming in.

How long does a goat take to mature?

Some ask how long goats take to mature. Most goat breeds take between 10 and 12 months to reach maturity. With a short gestation period of 4 months, female goats start to produce milk between 15 and 16 months.

Which is more profitable between milk and meat goats?

Some wonder which is more profitable between milk and meat goats in Kenya. Milk goats need a lot of care and resources before they can become profitable. Meat goats need fewer resources and attention to keep and maintain. That means meat goat livestock farming is more profitable than milk goat keeping, especially for beginners.

3. Sheep Farming

In Kenya, sheep livestock production has gained a foothold, especially in the rural areas where it is a good source of food and income for many people. Many farmers are continuously discovering that sheep farming can be a profitable venture with minimum inputs and fewer requirements than other types of livestock.

Sheep farmers keep sheep either for wool, mutton, milk, or for dual purposes, which can either be wool-mutton or mutton-milk purposes. But the most common purposes of keeping sheep in Kenya are wool and mutton, although some communities still keep sheep for their milk requirements.

The following are the common sheep breeds in Kenya together with their uses:


The Merino sheep is a popular breed in Kenya with pure breeds kept for wool while the more common cross-breeds are kept for both wool and mutton. The breed is cross-bred with Doppers and Hampshires to produce to get offspring with quality wool and muton. The offspring will be ready for the market in 5-6 months, which means they have good fertility rates.

Merino Sheep Livestock Farming

Merino sheep are found mainly in semi-arid to sub-humid climates in Kenya and at medium to high altitudes under ranching and agro-pastoral management systems. They are usually uni-colored and they are also heavy with males weighing up to 100Kg while females weighing up to 60 Kg. The breed is adapted to high rainfall grassland regions. Animals of this breed are reported to be less susceptible to fly strikes because of their smooth body in comparison to sheep with skin folds.


Corriedale Sheep Livestock Farming

Corriedale is a dual-purpose breed for wool and mutton. They have a long life span and are hardy and evenly balanced all over the body. Corriedales are docile, easy-care mothers, with high fertility. They adapt well to a wide range of climate conditions. Their dense fleece is medium-fine and high yielding, with good length and softness. Their lambs produce good quality carcasses and have a high pelt value. Mature rams will weigh 75 to 120 kgs, ewes can weigh from 55 to 80 kg. 


Southdown Sheep Livestock Farming

Southdown is among the oldest sheep breeds in Kenya. They are medium in built, provide good quality wool, and produce fat lamb. They have one of the fastest growth rates among the sheep breeds in Kenya. They are highly prolific with 125%-150% lambing rates. Their small body size limits the final body weight. That is why cross-breeding of this breed with is discouraged leading to the slow death of these sheep in Kenya.

Hampshire Down

Hampshire Down Sheep Livestock Farming

The Hampshire Down is a big-sized breed of sheep which is originally from Ireland but has found its place in Kenya’s livestock production scene. The sheep have an average weight of 80 Kg and it is also highly prolific with 125%-150% lambing rates. Being an exotic breed, it is also used for cross breeding to improve the quality of the local breeds. The males are very big and aggressive which makes them important sire breeds. The sheep breed has a low wool quality and therefore, it is exclusively used for mutton production.

Romney Marsh

Romney Marsh Sheep Livestock Farming

The Romney is an open-faced breed with long wool that grows over the legs in full. It is kept for both wool and mutton production. The wool produced by this breed of sheep is long and coarse which many say is of low quality with fat lambs that are also considered of low quality.

They can survive in wetlands and marshy areas due to their high resistance if foot rot. Their hooves are black and hard which means pathogens can not easily enter. They are among the best utilizes of pastures. These sheep are docile which makes them easy to handle.


The Dorper is among the most common sheep breeds in Kenya. It was developed through the crossing of the Blackhead Persian ewes with the Dorset Horn rams. The name ‘Dorper’ is a coupling of the first syllables of the parent breeds Dorset and Persian. They are kept for both hair and mutton.

Dorper Sheep Livestock Farming

They are non-selective grazers and fit well in cool climates where they can be used to convert feed resources, which are not utilized or underutilized by other livestock. They have a high lambing percentage. Rams reach sexual maturity at an early age, and rams have been observed to start working by five months. Their inherent growth potential is such that they can attain a live weight of 36 kg at 3-4 months of age. They have also a very even temperament.

Red Masai

Red Masai Sheep Livestock Farming

The Red Masai is a sheep breed found in the semi-arid parts of Kenya and Tanzania. The Red Masai sheep are tolerant and resistant to the notorious sheep parasite. They are predominantly kept by the Maasai pastoralists and their neighbors. This breed is identified by its relatively large body size and thick red hair.

However, when all of the strains are considered, the sheep are multicolored, the most preferred color by the Maasai and therefore the commonest being red, brown, and occasionally pied. The average birth weight is 2.7 kg and the average weaning weight is 15 kg. Mature weight for males is on average 45.5kg and 35 kg for females. These sheep are also good milk producers and are highly fertile.

Persian Blackhead

Persian Blackhead Sheep

The Blackhead Persian is a fat-tailed breed of domestic sheep. The sheep is originally from Somali land. The breed is also a type of hair sheep, meaning they do not grow wool and tolerate heat better than woolen breeds and are raised primarily for mutton. The Blackhead Persian has a white body and, as their name would suggest, an entirely black head. On average at maturity, rams weigh 68 kg and ewes 52 kg.

Sheep Farming Systems in Kenya

In Kenya, sheep are kept through intensive, extensive, traditional pastoralism, and organic systems. The system to use depends on the breed of sheep to be kept and the resources available to the farmer.

1. Intensive sheep farming

Intensive sheep farming in Kenya is usually used to keep dairy sheep. It is the least used system of sheep farming in Kenya, accounting for less than 1% of the total sheep population in the country. In this system, the sheep are confined to sheds from where they are fed and watered. As with other intensive livestock production systems, this system still emphasizes the concentration of stocks with the best feeds and care so that the farmer can achieve the highest production capacities.

The system is well-practiced in areas with an abundance of pasture, cool climatic conditions, and regular rainfall. The central parts of Kenya and some other areas in the Rift Valley are where this kind of system is popularly used.

Among the advantages of this system in sheep livestock farming are:

  • Breeding of the sheep is controlled since there will be no cross-breeding.
  • The multiplication of the flock is controlled since the farmer controls the breeding.
  • If practiced properly, it leads to higher yields.
  • The system is independent of climatic conditions.
  • The system results in high fertility rates.
  • Diseases are easily controlled especially outbreaks.

The main shortcomings of the system are:

  • The system needs a lot of capital to set up and run.
  • The system is labor-intensive which adds to the expenses.
  • In case of an outbreak among the sheep, the diseases will be quickly transmitted.
  • The system is considered cruel to animals.

2. Extensive sheep farming

In extensive sheep livestock farming, the animals spend all or most of the day grazing in the fields. It is the most used way of producing wool and mutton in Kenya. Here. the sheep are free to move around and practice their natural behavior and are only confined in the evening, during poor weather conditions, or during disease outbreaks.

In extensive sheep livestock production, the use of natural pastures can be done in two ways, a mobile grazing system and a sedentary grazing system. The first is characterized by annual or seasonal movements of the animals with the shepherd to new places in search of feed, and while sedentary grazing, the animals are driven freely to pastures near the farm, usually keeping the animals at night in the sheds.

The following are the advantages of this system in sheep production:

  • The system needs less capital to start and run.
  • The system mostly uses family labor which cuts the costs to the farmers.
  • The system keeps good adaptive breeds.
  • The sheep are free to roam around which keeps them healthy.
  • Many consumers prefer free-range meat to intensively produced meat.
  • In the case of outbreaks, diseases do not spread quickly.

The shortcomings of this system are:

  • The breeding and multiplication of shep are hard to control.
  • The system is dependent on climatic conditions.
  • The system results in lower production rates.
  • Control of diseases is hard when they break out.

3. Traditional pastoralism sheep farming

The traditional pastoralism of sheep livestock production is the most practiced in arid areas. That means that it is the most common system in Kenya since most of the rural areas are arid areas. The system involves a lot of movement of the sheep and the farmers due to the availability of pastures.

The system can either be nomadic or seminomadic. Nomadic means that there is a constant movement of the sheep and their owners from one area to another upon the exhaustion of the available pasture. Seminomadic means the movement is limited to a particular general area and mostly within communal lands.

Traditional pastoralism sheep livestock farming is usually used by those farmers who primarily depend on their sheep for both food and income. The breeds involved in this system are the traditional indigenous breeds that have minimum production levels. The sheep are hardy, disease and drought-resistant because of the adverse conditions they are raised in.

4. Organic sheep farming

As more and more consumers get concerned about their health, the consumer market is slowly shifting towards organically produced products. That is why organic sheep livestock farming is becoming popular with many farmers. These farmers have realized that organic sheep products especially milk and mutton are in high demand and sell for better prices than conventional products.

The main challenge to organic sheep farmers is the lack of using chemicals, pesticides, or antibiotics when raising their flock. That means the available pastures are limited and the sheep are at great risk of diseases. The farmers are advised to think of preventive ways of managing diseases on their flocks, which makes it hard especially when there is an outbreak.

Organically raised sheep should have access to the fields all day, with confinements only done at night. Any other confinements like during bad weather, or during disease outbreaks should be documented by the farmer clearly showing the periods of confinement.

The following are the benefits of organic sheep livestock farming:

  • Maintaining closed flocks that minimize the risk of acquiring diseases from elsewhere and also developing stock that is best suited to the farm conditions.
  • By using organically produced feeds, the farmer ensures higher sales to those who prefer this kind of product.
  • Limiting the use of pesticides and medicines which decreases adverse health effects to the product consumers and the flock.
  • Affords the sheep the chance to stay in their natural habitat and practice natural habits which is beneficial to the living and health standards of the sheep.

In Kenya, Biozone products are the best when it comes to organic farming. These products offer the best organic solutions to farmers for their goat requirements. Many farmers have tried and tested these products and the results have been nothing short of amazing.

Organic Livestock Farming

The Biozone Milk Booster-BFB is a certified fully organic product that can be used both as feed and as a food concentrate. The following are the benefits of this product to your goats:

  • Timely heat induction for the cows.
  • Improved digestion leads to improved production.
  • Regulated sheep menstrual cycle which leads to timely calving.
  • Boosts disease resistance which means healthier and more productive cows.
  • The product has enough calcium which means there is no need for extra calcium for sheep fed on this product.

Benefits of Sheep in Livestock Farming

The following are the benefits associated with sheep farming in Kenya:

  • Sheep thrive on grass. Sheep grow well on a forage-based diet, all they need is a source of water and access to a salt block. The grass provides all of the nutrients sheep need. Since many areas are not conducive to farming, then sheep will do well in those areas.
  • Sheep provide no pesticide weed control. Some weeds, like burdock, dandelion, and chicory, sheep will eat first, then eat the grass as a second choice. Farmers use sheep to get rid of these weeds, especially in organic farming environments.
  • Sheep are mobile grazers which means they can be used not only for the grass on the home farm but for the grass or other forages growing on other properties.
  • Sheep provide natural fertilizer in the areas they graze inform of manure.
  • Sheep are small-bodied compared to other livestock like cattle which means they can be put into all kinds of areas that are not appropriate for larger stock. Places, where the soil is too fragile to handle the traffic of cattle, can often handle the use by sheep.
  • Sheep grow quickly which means quick profits o the farmer by reaching reproductive age or getting to finishing weight, in a shorter period than most other animals primarily raised on the pastures.
  • Sheep can do well in small areas which means for those with limited land, this is the best kind of livestock farming.
  • Sheep farming is the cheapest form of livestock production since they are cheap and do not require a lot of capital.
  • For the meat-eaters, lamb and mutton are the easiest meat to cook compared to other livestock meat.

FAQs About Sheep Farming In Kenya

How profitable is sheep farming?

Many people ask about the profitability of sheep livestock production in Kenya. Sheep farming is one of the most profitable forms of livestock farming in Kenya. That is because it needs the least capital to begin and sheep are very prolific, with a majority lambing two times a year. That means the returns on investments are very high and hence profits.

Between wool, milk, and mutton sheep farming, which is better?

The choice between wool, milk, and mutton sheep farming is a question among many people, especially new potential farmers. The sheep kept for wool take a lot of time before the wool is ready for shaving. That means you will have to wait for long before you earn any income. Sheep kept for milk need a lot of capital and resources to begin and run. That means, for beginners, the best kind of sheep farming is mutton since it requires less capital to start and run.

How long do sheep take to mature?

How long sheep take to mature is also a common question since it is related to profitability. Many breeds of sheep will reach maturity between 10 and 12 months, which means that they can be sold for mutton or the females can start breeding. That translates to profits and returns within a year.

4. Camel Farming

Camel livestock farming in Kenya is practiced in the North-Eastern parts of the country, where they are a major part of the community. They can be considered as a source of food and income for these communities, with a regular slogan of ‘if you don’t own a camel, you are a cripple’. In these communities, apart from the food and income, the locals get from camels, the animals are also used as beasts of burden, in that they help the people in transporting heavy goods.

The breeds kept in Kenya are usually named after the communities which rear them, that is, Somali, Rendille/Gabbra, and Turkana. The following is a brief explanation of the different breeds of camels:


The Somali breed of camels is hailed as the largest in body size with adults weighing between 450 Kg and 8590 Kg. They are mostly cream or brown and they have the following main traits:

Somali Camel Livestock Farming
  • Good for milk production as it can give 3 to 5 liters in a day.
  • Milking the camel three times a day guarantees even more milk.
  • Lactation length is 1 to 1.5 years.
  • First calving occurs between 4 – 5 years.
  • The average standing height is 2 meters when mature.
  • Heavy feeders and require 8 to 12 hours of feeding in a day depending on feed availability.
  • Are more comfortable feeding on shrubs because of their height.

The main advantages of this breed in livestock farming are the high milk production capacities and early maturity which means the farmer profits more from them than other breeds.

Their main shortcomings are that they cannot be reared in rough terrain or rocky hillsides due to their large size and that they will suffer more in times of drought which leads to a shortage of food and water.


It is another camel breed in livestock farming kept by the Rendille and the Gabbra communities. They are brown or cream and they are medium in body size with adult camels weighing between 300 Kg and 500 Kg.

Rendille/Gabbra Camel Livestock Farming

They have the following main traits:

  • A milk yield of 1 – 3 liters per day.
  • Lactation period of 1 to 1.5 years.
  • First calving occurs between 5 – 6 years.
  • The average standing height is 1.8 meters.
  • Feed requirements: Less than Somali, requiring 8 – 10 hours of grazing.

The advantages of these types of camels are that they do better in poor pasture conditions and rough terrain and that they can tolerate drought conditions better than the Somali breeds.

Their main disadvantages are that they have a low milk yield and that they have late maturity compared to the Somali.


It is the breed in livestock farming kept by the Turkana community. They are dark grey in appearance and they are the smallest of all camel breeds with adults weighing between 250 Kg and 500 Kg.

They have the following main traits:

Turkana Camel Livestock Production
  • A lower milk yield of 1 t0 2.5 liters, which is the lowest among the camel breeds.
  • Lactation length of about 1 year.
  • First calving occurs between 5 and 6 years of age.
  • The average standing height is 1.7 meters.
  • Feed requirements are less than that of Gabbra/Rendille, requiring about 7 hours of grazing.

The Turkana breed of camels is advantageous to the owners because they are the hardiest, they are agile and able to climb steep lava hills because of their small body size, and they are the least affected in times of drought when the pasture and water are in short supply.

Their main shortcomings are that they mature late than other breeds and they have the least milk yield which affects the farmer’s benefits from the camels.

Camel Farming Systems in Kenya

Due to the nature of their importance to the communities which keep camels and the type of climatic conditions found in these areas, they can only be kept under a free-range (extensive) system. With consumers becoming more careful about the type of products they consume, some farmers are adopting organic livestock farming methods to rear their camels.

1. Free-range camel keeping

Camels under free-range livestock farming are free to roam the fields all day long, with only sheds provided at night. Due to the constant adverse climatic conditions in the areas where camels are kept, the owners allow the animals to feed all the time as long as they are not used as they are not being used as a means of transport. That gives the camels a chance to feed as much as they can since pasture is limited.

The land where these communities live is communal, which means that the camels can graze anywhere provided there is pasture. Also, due to the chronic scarcity of water in those areas, the camels and their owners move a lot in search of this commodity. That means that a majority of these people are nomads, and therefore, move a lot in search of water and food for both man and animal.

2. Organic camel keeping

Organic camel keeping in livestock production means that the farmers should observe the laid down guidelines of organic farming. That means the farmer should mind about the type of food, living conditions, and health care provided to the animals. It means the camels should be kept on natural pasture and that no antibiotics, growth hormones, and chemical food additives.

The farmers are advised to adopt preventive measures in keeping their camels healthy. Organic camels should not be treated using conventional medicines as much as it is possible. Some vaccines are allowed in disease prevention, but this should be done on very strict terms Nand wherever possible, the farmer should keep the necessary documentation to show the vaccines used.

In Kenya, Biozone products are the best when it comes to organic farming. These products offer the best organic solutions to farmers for their goat requirements. Many farmers have tried and tested these products and the results have been nothing short of amazing.

Organic Livestock Farming

The Biozone Milk Booster-BFB is a certified fully organic product that can be used both as feed and as a food concentrate. The following are the benefits of this product to your goats:

  • Timely heat induction for the cows.
  • Improved digestion leads to improved production.
  • Regulated camel menstrual cycle which leads to timely calving.
  • Boosts disease resistance which means healthier and more productive cows.
  • The product has enough calcium which means there is no need for extra calcium for camels fed on this product.

Importance of Camel Keeping

The following are the benefits of camels in livestock production:

1. Milk and meat

Camels are kept mainly for milk and meat. The milk is sometimes referred to as ‘the white Gold of the desert’. The high vitamin C content in camel milk is of great advantage to the communities that have limited access to fruits and vegetables. It is also believed to have medicinal value e.g. beneficial effects in the management of high blood pressure and diabetes.

2. work and transport

Pastoralists use male camels mainly for drawing water, carrying their houses and other belongings, shifting young children, old people, and young stock, and ferrying surplus milk to the market. That means for those living in these communities without a camel life is extra hard on these people.

3. Tourism and sports

Camel racing and trekking safaris have great potential to earn the owners’ and trainers’ income from eco-tourism. Parts of northern Kenya and Rift Valley are highly suited to this as they may offer a combination of wildlife and mountain scenery. Camel racing in Kenya is still in its infancy, but it is rapidly growing and it is believed it will soon catch up to the fame associated with the sport in the middle-eastern countries.

4. Social and cultural uses

Camels play an important role as a medium for regulating most aspects of the socio-cultural and religious lifestyles of camel-keeping communities. A man without camels is like a cripple because he cannot shift with the rest of the community, draw water from far distances or provide enough for his family, especially during drought. A family without camels is considered to be poor, despite having other livestock species. The camel is regarded as a symbol of wealth, status, and prestige. For example, amongst the Somali pastoralists, families or clans with large camel herds are regarded as being wealthy with a higher social status and influence, and often become opinion leaders within the community.

FAQs About Camel Keeping in Kenya

What is the cost of camels?

Many people, especially beginners, ask how much is the cost of camels in Kenya. It will depend on the age of the animal, with calves under one year going for approximately Kshs 13,000 while mature camels can cost up to Kshs 100,000. But the best time to buy a camel is when they are younger so that it can get accustomed to the owner and get properly trained on its duties.

Are camels beneficial to the owners?

Still, some ask how beneficial camels are to their owners. As it has been demonstrated, the communities which keep camels depend on them for food, work, and transport. Therefore, living in these communities without a camel will make life very difficult.

How profitable are camels in livestock production?

There are questions about the profitability of camels and whether it is a worthwhile venture. The answer is YES. Kenya is the largest producer and exporter of camel products in the world, with good profits going to those people who keep these animals. Also, since these animals need less capital to start and run, it means the final returns on investment will be very high.

5. Horse Keeping

Horse keeping is a form of livestock production whereby the farmer keeps horses for different purposes. In Kenya, horse farming and breeding are not widely practiced compared to other types of livestock farming. That is because the costs of breeding and keeping horses are very high and out of reach for many people. That is one of the main reasons why horse-keeping is associated with the rich.

In livestock production, horses play different roles and they are useful to the farmer in many different ways as it will be later shown. That means horse-keeping can be a profitable venture if you have the required capital to start and maintain.

Before discussing the importance of horses to the farmer, you should first know about the different types of horses. There are many different breeds of horses available, but they can be categorized into five main types. These are draft horses, light horses, gaited horses, warm-blooded horses, and ponies.

Draft horses

In livestock production, draft horses are tall, strong, and heavy horses. They weigh over 1,600 pounds and are 64 inches. They are bred to pull and carry heavy loads, as they can pull twice their weight. Historically they were used for many things ranging from farm work to carrying soldiers in battles. These horses are usually even-tempered and level-headed. They are labeled cold-blooded as they are large, strong horses made for working, paired with a calm temperament. Examples of draft horses include Clydesdale, Breton, Shire, and Boulonnais. 

Light horses

For those involved in livestock production in sport horses, light horses are more diverse and often vary in height, weight, build, and color. They are all bred for speed, agility, endurance, and riding. Used for every type of riding, these horses were bred to be under the saddle of a rider. These horses fall under the category of speed horses as they have high energy, and are easily excited and fleet-footed. Examples of light typed horses include Hanoverian, Friesian, Paso Fino, and Lusitano.

Gaited horses

Gaited horses are similar to light horses since they are also meant for riding, but these are for the smooth ride. They are capable of gaits such as running, walking, foxtrotting, and more. Historically these horses were made for “gentlemen” such as Generals, officers, and men that were wealthy. Examples of this breed include Icelandic, Campiero, and Campolina. 

Warm-blooded horses

In horse livestock production, warm-blooded horses are tall, strong, and athletic. They’re known as middleweight horses and are called warm-blooded because they are a combination of both hot and cold-blooded horses. They have sensible attitudes with high energy. This high energy is perfect for dressage, jumping harness, and equestrian Olympic sports. Examples of warm blood types include Dutch, Hanovarian, and Swedish. 


Ponies are the last type of horses in livestock production. They are the smallest of all horses and hence the name. They usually measure less than 5 feet in height due to their shorter legs. There are over 100 breeds of pony that are bred to pull, pack, harness, ride, jump, and more. Ponies are widely popular for sports and recreation, especially for children due to their small size. Examples of ponies include American Miniature, Hacknet, and Gypsy. 

Systems of Horse Keeping in Kenya

In livestock farming, horses can be categorized as grazers. That is because they depend on grass as their main food. That means the best way to keep horses is through a free-range system. With horse owners becoming environmentally aware, some have adopted organic methods to keep their horses.

1. Free-range horse keeping

As it has been said, the free-range system of horse keeping is the most common way of rearing horses in livestock production. In this system, the horses are free to roam around the fields, but for their security, they should be accompanied by a herder. The only time the horses are confined in during the night or in case of other emergencies like adverse weather and disease outbreaks.

Free-range horses also need food supplements, and that is why farmers are advised to give those supplements and minerals during the evening when the horses are from the fields.

2. Organic horse keeping

Organic livestock production is a preference of many farmers nowadays, and horse-keeping is no exception. In organic hore farming, the horses are only fed on certified organic feeds and pasture. That means there are no hormones or growth stimulants in the horse feeds. Also, the use of conventional medicine and antibiotics in disease management is prohibited, unless on special occasions. These special occasions are for vaccines or when there are severe outbreaks of diseases. Any conventional medication given to the horses should be documented for future reference.

In Kenya, the Biozone products provide solutions for all organic requirements in any type of organic livestock farming. Contact the sales team here if you wish to take your horses the organic way.

Things to Keep in Mind About Horse Keeping in Kenya

If you want to start a horse-keeping farm in Kenya, there are several things you should know. These are:


According to existing horse keepers, horses in Kenya are imported from Europe, with Denmark, Germany, and Holland as the best countries to source top dressage horses. Other countries to source horses from are South Africa, Zimbabwe, Australia, and the United Kingdom. In countries such as Denmark, horse-riding is among the country’s top sports ranking just as highly as football. For this reason, these countries are more advanced in horse breeding and care, placing them as the best areas to source various horse breeds. 

Horse prices

In livestock production, the prices of horses depend on several factors. These are:

  • Breed. The first determinant of horse prices in livestock production is the breed of the horse. The better the breed, the higher the price, with thoroughbred horses being considered the most expensive breed of horses given their almost assured win in all competitions. These horses can sell for over one million dollars. 
  • Training. Horses can be highly trained for better performances that bring a lot of profits to the owner. The higher the level of training given to a horse, the more you will pay.
  • Age. A horse at its prime age is worth a lot more than an older one. The prime age is between seven and fourteen years old. Older horses may not be able to perform better on track in races and even in general activities.
  • Health. A healthy horse will attract far much more money than a sickly one. This is because they can perform at their optimum. Sickly ones or those with underlying conditions will attract heavy veterinary services. 


In livestock production, horses are imported and there need to be transportation costs considered in the full expenses. One must first source their registration followed by passport acquisition just like human beings when they travel. These transport and registration will make the final costs of horses very high and out of reach for many people.


Dietary matters of horses must also be considered in livestock production. They require salt, minerals, molasses, hay, grass, and grain mix. For those in fields, they require tracts of grazing land. For instance, each horse consumes four bags of 74kg of horse meal each worth Ksh 2,200. Each horse also consumes one bucket of molasses each month.


Healthcare matters for horses in livestock production is another thorny issue. That is because veterinary services for horses, especially thoroughbreds may be very expensive. With a few vet doctors well versed with these horses’ health requirements, horse owners in Kenya have to import those services from broad which become expensive in the long run.

Supplies and equipment

In livestock production, horses need supplies and equipment which depend on the owners’ needs. These include riding supplies such as stirrup leathers, riding saddles, grooming supplies, and regular horseshoe replacements. For riders and gamers, there need to be costs obtained in sourcing riding pants, helmets, and boots.

Benefits of Horse Keeping In Kenya

Considering all other types of livestock farming, horse-keeping is the only one that is not used to provide food and milk in Kenya. That makes quantifying their benefits problematic, especially to those who don’t keep horses. The following are the major benefits of horse keeping:

  • Horses for work. Single or a pair of horses can be used to draw most farm implements for land preparation and harvesting as plowing, harrowing, and mowing. They can help in irrigation by driving water pumps or electric generators. Good money can also be earned by renting out horses for horseback riding or as carriage horses in the tourist industry or the domestic leisure market.
  • Horses for sport. In Kenya horses for sport are mainly used for horse racing, polo-playing some dressage, and show jumping. Long-distance races, competitive carriage driving, and many more are not currently practiced here. The monetary value of good sporting horses has no upper limit and breeding these types of horses is good business.
  • Horses as pets. Horses are great family pets and can give their owners much pleasure with their gentle and trusting nature. Children as young as four to five years can learn to ride and handle a horse. For many this will start a passion they will not be able to lose for the remainder of their lives.

FAQs About Horse Keeping In Kenya

What is the cost of a horse in Kenya?

Some ask about the cost of a horse in Kenya. The price of a horse in Kenya ranges from Kshs. 400,000 up to Kshs. 2,000,000 depending on the age, breed, and gender of the horse. These prices are for the locally bred horses, with imported thoroughbreds going for as much as Kshs. 100 Million.

Is horse keeping profitable in Kenya?

Many people ask whether horse-keeping is a profitable venture. The answer is YES. Horse keeping is a lucrative form of livestock production if you have enough capital to begin. The only problem associated with this kind of livestock farming is that it is the most expensive to start and maintain and is not advised for beginners.

How much is horse training?

Before acquiring a horse either for personal riding or sport, it should be well trained. That is why people ask about the training expenses for horses. Horse training is expensive and will cost you between Kshs. 30,000 and Kshs. 150,000 depending on the level of training you want. The training is billed per hour, and the younger the horse, the easier it is to train, hence the cheaper it is for you.


The kind of livestock production you want to pursue will largely depend on the amount of capital you have to start. Some forms of livestock farming are more expensive than others to start and manage. That means before starting any kind of livestock production you will have to gauge the amount of money you have and the best venture suited for you.

In terms of start-up capital required, sheep and goat livestock farming are the cheapest. Cattle and camels are moderately expensive while horse keeping is the most expensive. That kind of grading is purely based on starting capital and not necessarily profitability. The profitability of any kind of livestock production will depend on the kind of care and good farming practices you keep.

With consumers shifting to organic products, it is good to start considering organic ways of livestock farming. Organic products are currently selling better than conventional products which means more profits for the farmer. In Kenya, the best organic foods and food supplements for your animals are Biozone products. Check them out and start your journey to more farming profitability.

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